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db/Elasticsearch系列/9-11文档操作/2-Elasticsearch之查询的两种方式

2020-03-09

Elasticsearch之查询的两种方式

一 前言

简单的没挑战,来点复杂的,elasticsearch提供两种查询方式:

  • 查询字符串(query string),简单查询,就像是像传递URL参数一样去传递查询语句,被称为简单搜索或查询字符串(query string)搜索。
  • 另外一种是通过DSL语句来进行查询,被称为DSL查询(Query DSL),DSL是Elasticsearch提供的一种丰富且灵活的查询语言,该语言以json请求体的形式出现,通过restful请求与Elasticsearch进行交互。

二 准备数据

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PUT lqz/doc/1
{
"name":"顾老二",
"age":30,
"from": "gu",
"desc": "皮肤黑、武器长、性格直",
"tags": ["黑", "长", "直"]
}

PUT lqz/doc/2
{
"name":"大娘子",
"age":18,
"from":"sheng",
"desc":"肤白貌美,娇憨可爱",
"tags":["白", "富","美"]
}

PUT lqz/doc/3
{
"name":"龙套偏房",
"age":22,
"from":"gu",
"desc":"mmp,没怎么看,不知道怎么形容",
"tags":["造数据", "真","难"]
}


PUT lqz/doc/4
{
"name":"石头",
"age":29,
"from":"gu",
"desc":"粗中有细,狐假虎威",
"tags":["粗", "大","猛"]
}

PUT lqz/doc/5
{
"name":"魏行首",
"age":25,
"from":"广云台",
"desc":"仿佛兮若轻云之蔽月,飘飘兮若流风之回雪,mmp,最后竟然没有嫁给顾老二!",
"tags":["闭月","羞花"]
}

三 查询字符串

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GET lqz/doc/_search?q=from:gu

还是使用GET命令,通过_serarch查询,查询条件是什么呢?条件是from属性是gu家的人都有哪些。最后,别忘了_searchfrom属性中间的英文分隔符?

结果如下:

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{
"took" : 1,
"timed_out" : false,
"_shards" : {
"total" : 5,
"successful" : 5,
"skipped" : 0,
"failed" : 0
},
"hits" : {
"total" : 3,
"max_score" : 0.6931472,
"hits" : [
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "4",
"_score" : 0.6931472,
"_source" : {
"name" : "石头",
"age" : 29,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "粗中有细,狐假虎威",
"tags" : [
"粗",
"大",
"猛"
]
}
},
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "1",
"_score" : 0.2876821,
"_source" : {
"name" : "顾老二",
"age" : 30,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "皮肤黑、武器长、性格直",
"tags" : [
"黑",
"长",
"直"
]
}
},
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "3",
"_score" : 0.2876821,
"_source" : {
"name" : "龙套偏房",
"age" : 22,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "mmp,没怎么看,不知道怎么形容",
"tags" : [
"造数据",
"真",
"难"
]
}
}
]
}
}

我们来重点说下hitshits是返回的结果集——所有from属性为gu的结果集。重点中的重点是_score得分,得分是什么呢?根据算法算出跟查询条件的匹配度,匹配度高得分就高。后面再说这个算法是怎么回事。

四 结构化查询

我们现在使用DSL方式,来完成刚才的查询,查看来自顾家的都有哪些人。

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GET lqz/doc/_search
{
"query": {
"match": {
"from": "gu"
}
}
}

上例,查询条件是一步步构建出来的,将查询条件添加到match中即可,而match则是查询所有from字段的值中含有gu的结果就会返回。
当然结果没啥变化:

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{
"took" : 0,
"timed_out" : false,
"_shards" : {
"total" : 5,
"successful" : 5,
"skipped" : 0,
"failed" : 0
},
"hits" : {
"total" : 3,
"max_score" : 0.6931472,
"hits" : [
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "4",
"_score" : 0.6931472,
"_source" : {
"name" : "石头",
"age" : 29,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "粗中有细,狐假虎威",
"tags" : [
"粗",
"大",
"猛"
]
}
},
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "1",
"_score" : 0.2876821,
"_source" : {
"name" : "顾老二",
"age" : 30,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "皮肤黑、武器长、性格直",
"tags" : [
"黑",
"长",
"直"
]
}
},
{
"_index" : "lqz",
"_type" : "doc",
"_id" : "3",
"_score" : 0.2876821,
"_source" : {
"name" : "龙套偏房",
"age" : 22,
"from" : "gu",
"desc" : "mmp,没怎么看,不知道怎么形容",
"tags" : [
"造数据",
"真",
"难"
]
}
}
]
}
}
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