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python/Django框架/14-Django高级之-forms组件

2020-09-24

*1 校验字段功能 *

针对一个实例:注册用户讲解。

模型:models.py

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class UserInfo(models.Model):
name=models.CharField(max_length=32)
pwd=models.CharField(max_length=32)
email=models.EmailField(

模版文件

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Title</title>

</head>
<body>

<form action="" method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
<div>
<label for="user">用户名</label>
<p><input type="text" name="name" id="name"></p>
</div>
<div>
<label for="pwd">密码</label>
<p><input type="password" name="pwd" id="pwd"></p>
</div>
<div>
<label for="r_pwd">确认密码</label>
<p><input type="password" name="r_pwd" id="r_pwd"></p>
</div>
<div>
<label for="email">邮箱</label>
<p><input type="text" name="email" id="email"></p>
</div>
<input type="submit">
</form>

</body>
</html>

视图函数:

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# forms组件
from django.forms import widgets

wid_01=widgets.TextInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"})
wid_02=widgets.PasswordInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"})

class UserForm(forms.Form):
name=forms.CharField(max_length=32,
widget=wid_01
)
pwd=forms.CharField(max_length=32,widget=wid_02)
r_pwd=forms.CharField(max_length=32,widget=wid_02)
email=forms.EmailField(widget=wid_01)
tel=forms.CharField(max_length=32,widget=wid_01)



def register(request):

if request.method=="POST":
form=UserForm(request.POST)
if form.is_valid():
print(form.cleaned_data) # 所有干净的字段以及对应的值
else:
print(form.cleaned_data) #
print(form.errors) # ErrorDict : {"校验错误的字段":["错误信息",]}
print(form.errors.get("name")) # ErrorList ["错误信息",]
return HttpResponse("OK")
form=UserForm()
return render(request,"register.html",locals())

2 渲染标签功能

渲染方式1

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Title</title>
<!-- 最新版本的 Bootstrap 核心 CSS 文件 -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.bootcss.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css" integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">
</head>
<body>
<h3>注册页面</h3>
<div class="container">
<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-6 col-lg-offset-3">

<form action="" method="post">
{% csrf_token %}
<div>
<label for="">用户名</label>
{{ form.name }}
</div>
<div>
<label for="">密码</label>
{{ form.pwd }}
</div>
<div>
<label for="">确认密码</label>
{{ form.r_pwd }}
</div>
<div>
<label for=""> 邮箱</label>
{{ form.email }}
</div>

<input type="submit" class="btn btn-default pull-right">
</form>
</div>
</div>
</div>



</body>
</html>

渲染方式2

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<form action="" method="post">
{% csrf_token %}

{% for field in form %}
<div>
<label for="">{{ field.label }}</label>
{{ field }}
</div>
{% endfor %}
<input type="submit" class="btn btn-default pull-right">

</form>

渲染方式3

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<form action="" method="post">
{% csrf_token %}

{{ form.as_p }}

<input type="submit" class="btn btn-default pull-right">

</form>

3 渲染错误信息功能

视图

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def register(request):

if request.method=="POST":
form=UserForm(request.POST)
if form.is_valid():
print(form.cleaned_data) # 所有干净的字段以及对应的值
else:
print(form.cleaned_data) #
print(form.errors) # ErrorDict : {"校验错误的字段":["错误信息",]}
print(form.errors.get("name")) # ErrorList ["错误信息",]
return render(request,"register.html",locals())
form=UserForm()
return render(request,"register.html",locals())

模板

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<form action="" method="post" novalidate>
{% csrf_token %}

{% for field in form %}
<div>
<label for="">{{ field.label }}</label>
{{ field }} <span class="pull-right" style="color: red">{{ field.errors.0 }}</span>
</div>
{% endfor %}
<input type="submit" class="btn btn-default">

</form>

4 组件的参数配置

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class Ret(Form):
name = forms.CharField(max_length=10, min_length=2, label='用户名',
error_messages={'required': '该字段不能为空', 'invalid': '格式错误', 'max_length': '太长',
'min_length': '太短'},
widget=widgets.TextInput(attrs={'class':'form-control'}))
pwd = forms.CharField(max_length=10, min_length=2, widget=widgets.PasswordInput(attrs={'class':'form-control'}))
email = forms.EmailField(label='邮箱', error_messages={'required': '该字段不能为空', 'invalid': '格式错误'})

5 局部钩子

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from django.core.exceptions import NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ValidationError
def clean_name(self):

val=self.cleaned_data.get("name")

ret=UserInfo.objects.filter(name=val)

if not ret:
return val
else:
raise ValidationError("该用户已注册!")

def clean_tel(self):

val=self.cleaned_data.get("tel")

if len(val)==11:

return val
else:
raise ValidationError("手机号格式错误")

6 全局钩子

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def clean(self):
pwd=self.cleaned_data.get('pwd')
r_pwd=self.cleaned_data.get('r_pwd')

if pwd and r_pwd:
if pwd==r_pwd:
return self.cleaned_data
else:
raise ValidationError('两次密码不一致')
else:

return self.cleaned_data
1
pwd_err=my_form.errors.get('__all__')
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from django import forms

from django.forms import widgets
from app01.models import UserInfo

from django.core.exceptions import NON_FIELD_ERRORS, ValidationError

class UserForm(forms.Form):
name=forms.CharField(min_length=4,label="用户名",error_messages={"required":"该字段不能为空"},
widget=widgets.TextInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"})
)
pwd=forms.CharField(min_length=4,label="密码",
widget=widgets.PasswordInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"})
)
r_pwd=forms.CharField(min_length=4,label="确认密码",error_messages={"required":"该字段不能为空"},widget=widgets.TextInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"}))
email=forms.EmailField(label="邮箱",error_messages={"required":"该字段不能为空","invalid":"格式错误"},widget=widgets.TextInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"}))
tel=forms.CharField(label="手机号",widget=widgets.TextInput(attrs={"class":"form-control"}))


def clean_name(self):

val=self.cleaned_data.get("name")

ret=UserInfo.objects.filter(name=val)

if not ret:
return val
else:
raise ValidationError("该用户已注册!")

def clean_tel(self):

val=self.cleaned_data.get("tel")

if len(val)==11:

return val
else:
raise ValidationError("手机号格式错误")

def clean(self):
pwd=self.cleaned_data.get('pwd')
r_pwd=self.cleaned_data.get('r_pwd')

if pwd and r_pwd:
if pwd==r_pwd:
return self.cleaned_data
else:
raise ValidationError('两次密码不一致')
else:

return self.cleaned_data
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from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse

from app01.myforms import *

def reg(request):

if request.method=="POST":

print(request.POST)

#form=UserForm({"name":"yu","email":"123@qq.com","xxxx":"alex"})


form=UserForm(request.POST) # form表单的name属性值应该与forms组件字段名称一致

print(form.is_valid()) # 返回布尔值

if form.is_valid():
print(form.cleaned_data) # {"name":"yuan","email":"123@qq.com"}
else:
print(form.cleaned_data) # {"email":"123@qq.com"}
# print(form.errors) # {"name":[".........."]}
# print(type(form.errors)) # ErrorDict
# print(form.errors.get("name"))
# print(type(form.errors.get("name"))) # ErrorList
# print(form.errors.get("name")[0])


# 全局钩子错误
#print("error",form.errors.get("__all__")[0])
errors=form.errors.get("__all__")


return render(request,"reg.html",locals())

'''

form.is_valid() :返回布尔值
form.cleaned_data :{"name":"yuan","email":"123@qq.com"}
form.errors :{"name":[".........."]}

'''


form=UserForm()

return render(request,"reg.html",locals())
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Title</title>
<style>
.error{
color: red;
}
</style>
<!-- 最新版本的 Bootstrap 核心 CSS 文件 -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdn.bootcss.com/bootstrap/3.3.7/css/bootstrap.min.css"
integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">
</head>
<body>

<div class="container">

<div class="row">
<div class="col-md-6 col-lg-offset-3">

{#<h3>简单form</h3>#}
{##}
{##}
{#<form action="" method="post" novalidate>#}
{# {% csrf_token %}#}
{# <p>用户名<input type="text" name="name"></p>#}
{# <p>密码 <input type="text" name="pwd"></p>#}
{# <p>确认密码 <input type="text" name="r_pwd"></p>#}
{# <p>邮箱 <input type="text" name="email"></p>#}
{# <p>手机号 <input type="text" name="tel"></p>#}
{# <input type="submit">#}
{##}
{#</form>#}

<hr>
<h3>forms组件渲染方式1</h3>
<form action="" method="post" novalidate>

{% csrf_token %}
<p>{{ form.name.label }}
{{ form.name }} <span class="pull-right error">{{ form.name.errors.0 }}</span>
</p>
<p>{{ form.pwd.label }}
{{ form.pwd }} <span class="pull-right error">{{ form.pwd.errors.0 }}</span>
</p>
<p>确认密码
{{ form.r_pwd }} <span class="pull-right error">{{ form.r_pwd.errors.0 }}</span><span class="pull-right error">{{ errors.0 }}</span>
</p>
<p>邮箱 {{ form.email }} <span class="pull-right error">{{ form.email.errors.0 }}</span></p>
<p>手机号 {{ form.tel }} <span class="pull-right error">{{ form.tel.errors.0 }}</span></p>
<input type="submit">

</form>

{#<h3>forms组件渲染方式2</h3>#}
{##}
{#<form action="" method="post" novalidate>#}
{# {% csrf_token %}#}
{##}
{# {% for field in form %}#}
{##}
{# <div>#}
{# <label for="">{{ field.label }}</label>#}
{# {{ field }}#}
{# </div>#}
{##}
{# {% endfor %}#}
{##}
{# <input type="submit">#}
{#</form>#}
{##}
{#<h3>forms组件渲染方式3</h3>#}
{##}
{#<form action="" method="post">#}
{# {% csrf_token %}#}
{##}
{# {{ form.as_p }}#}
{##}
{# <input type="submit">#}
{#</form>#}


</div>
</div>
</div>

</body>
</html>
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